The Winter's Tale arrow Created with Sketch. Front Matter

Preface

The first New Variorum edition of The Winter’s Tale, the work of Horace Howard Furness, appeared in 1898. The present edition retraces Furness’s but does not replace it, for often the more recent scholarship and criticism reported here could be accommodated only by reducing Furness’s ampler treatment of the early material. The reader who finds this book useful is urged to consult Furness’s as well to obtain a fuller account of many subjects.

Patricia Tatspaugh wrote the section of this edition on performances and Andrew Sabol that on music. Robert Jones handled criticism in German. Although Virginia Haas worked primarily on the sections on criticism and the text on the stage, she had a hand throughout. Except for specific contributions acknowledged in their place, Robert Turner did the rest. Much of the work was done at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, having been underwritten by its College of Letters and Science (William F. Halloran, dean, and Jessica R. Wirth, associate dean). The Research Committee of the university’s Graduate School provided generous support, as did its Golda Meir Library (William F. Roselle and Peter Watson-Boone, library directors), which created and fostered a Shakespeare collection rivaled by few universities in the United States and by hardly any recently established ones. The Memorial Library of the University of Wisconsin–Madison (Kenneth L. Frazier, director of libraries) maintains a similarly distinguished collection for the use of the general editors of the Variorum series. The support of both libraries has been invaluable.

Financial aid for this edition was provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Folger Shakespeare Library, the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the American Philosophical Society, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Newberry Library Renaissance Consortium, and the Modern Language Association of America (Phyllis Franklin, executive director). Libraries at which research was done include the Folger Shakespeare Library; the Furness Memorial Library of the University of Pennsylvania; the New York Public Library; the British Library; the Bodleian Library; the Cambridge University Library; the Libraries of the Shakespeare Centre, Trinity College and Pembroke College, Cambridge; the University of London; the Research Services Department of the Theatre Museum (Victoria and Albert Museum); the Library of the Garrick Club; and the Hampden Booth Theatre Library. Their hospitality is greatly appreciated. The Beinecke Library, Yale University Library, and the Henry E. Huntington Library supplied information, and among the individuals who helped in various ways are Walter S. Achtert, Stephen Booth, Fredson Bowers, Gerry Flynn, Philip Gaskell, Joseph Gibaldi, Charlton Hinman, Cyrus Hoy, Taro Kusanagi, James G. McManaway, Barbara A. Mowat, Marvin Spevack, Judith Cook Svenheim, Roy Swanson, John Velz, George Walton Williams, and George T. Wright. I especially want to thank Patricia Rieselbach and James P. Hammersmith for their excellent assistance. Richard Knowles, the general editor of the New Variorum Shakespeare, made innumerable improvements, caught many mistakes, contributed his own critical ideas and evaluations, and in general shaped this edition much for the better. More recently, Paul Werstine, his fellow general editor, began to do the same. Virginia Haas and I are grateful to them both. We are also obliged to Susan Joseph, our copy editor, whose sharp eye saved us from error and sharp mind gave rise to a number of changes for the better.

Robert Kean Turner

Plan of the Work

This edition of The Winter’s Tale has four main parts: a text of the play reprinted with little change from that of the first edition in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies, the Folio of 1623 (F1); textual notes of significant departures from the F1 text in eighty-six editions of the play ranging in date from 1632 to 1988; commentary on the meaning or the artistry of the text drawn from editions, dictionaries, and critical works; and a collection of more general textual, historical, critical, and theatrical information about the play.

The text printed here derives from photocopies of one of the copies of F1 in the Folger Shakespeare Library. The transcript of these prints was compared with the WT texts of several other Folger copies, Sidney Lee’s Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies being a Reproduction in Facsimile of the First Folio Edition (Oxford, 1902), and Charlton Hinman’s The Norton Facsimile: The First Folio of Shakespeare (New York, 1968), the object being to make the Variorum text as accurate as possible. No F1 press variants affecting WT readings have as yet been found (see here). Silent alterations of the F1 text include the representation of roman long s by s; the printing of logotypes (at lines 1672 and 2146) and ligatures (e.g., roman ss and st) as two letters; the suppression or reduction of framing rules, display types, ornaments, printing space types, quads, and packing; the alignment of irregular letters and normalization of spacing (except in some instances noted below); the positioning of marginal stage directions to the right regardless of their placement in the F1 line; and the correction of wrong-font types, including alteration of italic punctuation marks to roman in a roman context and vice versa. Other errors are corrected when there is no doubt what the true reading should be. In a few instances missing punctuation is supplied, words turned up or down by F1 because the full line of text exceeded the measure of the column are printed in one line, and conventional closing punctuation is substituted for other marks at the end of completed speeches where no suspension seems intended. A list of these changes appears in the Appendix (see here). Also listed there are spellings probably adopted by F1 for justification. The line numbers of the text are the Through Line Numbers introduced by Charlton Hinman in The Norton Facsimile: The First Folio of Shakespeare (New York, 1968), but the headlines include, as well, the act-scene-line numbers of the 1974 Riverside WT, edited by G. Blakemore Evans. Riverside act and scene divisions are indicated by boldface numerals in the right margin. Also in the right margins, signature and column indicators of the beginning of each Folio column appear in parentheses.

The textual notes record alterations in the meaning or meter of the F1 text found in the editions collated; alteration of meaning was decided by the variant’s receiving separate listing in the Oxford English Dictionary and a different definition. Modernizations of form are ignored. So are misprints unless the misprint creates an English word or was taken for a word. Conjectural emendations are included in the textual notes if the reading has been adopted by one of the editions collated; others are in the list of unadopted conjectures (here). Alterations in punctuation and capitalization are ignored unless the alteration creates a different meaning. Stage directions added or altered in later editions appear only if the action implied by F1 is affected in a major way.

Variant lining affecting meter—verse as prose, prose as verse, verse as different verse—is noted. The elision or expansion of syllables is recorded only if the alteration shifts the word’s accent or alters the number of feet in a verse line. When words that may be elided must be elided to make regular verse (e.g., in the to one-syllable i’th) it is assumed that elision was intended and no note is provided. The expression one verse line indicates that part lines of verse shared by speakers have been arranged to indicate that taken together they constitute a pentameter. If the subject of the note is variant punctuation only, a word in the lemma that is repeated in the variant is represented there by a swung dash ( ~ ), and the absence of punctuation is indicated by an inferior caret (‸). Editions are represented by the sigla listed in this section (here) and on the endpapers of this book.

The basic form of the textual note may be illustrated by

647 ha’s] hath rowe1-john2, v1773-mal
which records the fact that in line 647—He ha’s discouer’d my Designe, and I—Rowe’s editions of 1709 and editions following through Johnson’s second edition of 1765 for ha’s in the Variorum text read hath. Capell’s edition of 1768 reads has, the equivalent of ha’s, and so is represented by an honorable absence, but the variorum edition of 1773 and those editions following through Malone’s of 1790 revert to hath. The variorum edition of 1793 restores the F1 reading and is followed by all other collated editions.

Another type of textual note employs the formula etc. For example:

30 hath been]  ~  F1, bul, nlsn, sis, cln2, pen2+; have been so col2, col3, ktly; have been F2 etc.
Here the editions that read with the Variorum text (F1, bul, nlsn, sis, cln2, pen2, and all later editions collated) appear first, then those that read have been so, then those that read have been, F2 being the first to do so, and etc. means and all other editions collated but not already accounted for.

Still another type of note makes use of family sigla:

32 Vast] Vast Sea F2-pope2, han, cap
han here represents both of Hanmer’s editions (1743 and 1745) that were collated, but not Hanmer’s edition of 1770, which was only quoted from occasionally. cap also looks like a family siglum and it is, but the family has but a single member, Capell’s 1768 edition. Occasionally the family siglum will not be based on the editor’s name; cam, for example, indicates the Cambridge editions of 1863 (cam1) and 1931 (cam3). In this note the hyphen, as one might expect, represents through. Elsewhere a minus sign is used to indicate exclusion:
32 Vast] Vast Sea F2-pope2 (−F4), han, cap
means that F4 reads not Vast Sea but Vast, as does the lemma. Had F4 read Huge Sea the note would have been
32 Vast] Vast Sea F2, F3, pope, han, cap; Huge Sea F4

Although most variant readings originate in editions, some are found in other sources:

34 Loues] love mtby3 conj., han, dyce2, hud2, kit1
Here the variant originates in Styan Thirlby’s manuscript notes in a volume of Theobald’s edition of 1733 (see here), where it is considered a conjecture because it does not appear in a published edition. The reading does appear in Hanmer’s edition of 1743 (and it also occurs in his second edition of 1745 and in three later editions). The note does not mean, however, that Hanmer necessarily found the reading in Thirlby’s notes or that Dyce found it there or in one of Hanmer’s editions. Here and in similar notes the variant is given in the form in which it was first printed rather than in the sometimes eccentric form of its manuscript source.

Added stage directions calling for action clearly implied by the text are not recorded, nor are those calling in different words for essentially the same action as the stage direction of the text. The abbreviation subst. indicates that although their language differs, the collated stage directions have the same significance. For example:

198 Wipes the boy’s face. han, cap, cam3 (subst.)
There is no equivalent of Hanmer’s stage direction in F1; it is derived from Leontes’s Why that’s my Bawcock: what? has’t smutch’d thy Nose?

They say it is a Coppy out of mine. Come Captaine,

We must be neat; not neat, but cleanly, Captaine:
Capell’s version of the stage direction is pulling the Boy to him, and wiping him; Wilson’s (cam3) is nearly identical to Hanmer’s. The note has no lemma because no direction appears in F1.

Beneath the textual notes is commentary on specific words or passages in the text. The glosses and explanatory notes of many editions of WT are quoted there, and definitions are drawn from works of reference and dictionaries, especially the Oxford English Dictionary but also dictionaries nearer Shakespeare’s time such as John Minsheu’s Ductor in Linguas, The Guide into Tongues (1617) and Henry Cockeram’s English Dictionarie (1623), as well as Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Foreign language dictionaries—John Florio’s English-Italian Queen Anna’s New World of Words (1611), for example—are sometimes used, as are specialized glossaries such as Henry Manwayring’s Sea-mans Dictionary (1644), B. E.’s Dictionary of the Terms . . . of the Canting Crew (1699), and Edward Sugden’s Topographical Dictionary (1925). Alexander Schmidt’s Shakespeare-Lexicon and C. T. Onions’s Shakespeare Glossary are the sources of many definitions, and E. A. Abbott’s Shakespearian Grammar and Wilhelm Franz’s Die Sprache Shakespeares are frequently alluded to. In general, the first comment to be made is quoted, but if a later one is clearer, more accurate, or more explicit, it appears instead. In these notes and elsewhere square brackets within quotations enclose corrections or comments made by the editors of this volume; the square brackets of the quotations themselves have been transformed to angle brackets (< >). The spelling and punctuation of the works cited are retained except that if the beginning or the end of a sentence has been omitted but a complete sentence remains, it is provided with a beginning capital or a final period. Initial capitals are also supplied for direct discourse. No notes are printed entirely in italics even though the source may have done so.

The remainder of the edition begins with a list of the F1 readings emended in the present text. Following that is another collection, a listing of proposed substantive emendations never adopted in the editions of WT collated. The subsequent sections are more general. Included are an essay on the text of the play—its authenticity, the printing of the F1 version, the scribal copy from which the compositors worked, and the copy from which the scribe worked and his fidelity to it. A second essay considers the date of the play’s composition; a third examines the play’s sources, primarily Robert Greene’s Pandosto but also minor sources and analogues. Imitations are also mentioned. Following is a selection of the literary criticism of the play and then a stage history that includes a record of how the text has been altered for the theater, an account of important performances, and a discussion of the actors who have taken major roles, as well as of directors responsible for significant interpretations. Finally, there is an account of the songs and dances that embellish the play’s dialogue and action.

The versions of WT published in the following editions were collated for substantive differences from F1. Each title is preceded by the siglum that identifies the edition in the textual notes and other textual apparatus. The place of publication of these and all other books mentioned throughout the edition is London unless otherwise specified.

F1 Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies 1623 F2 Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies. . . . The second Impression. 1632 F3 Mr. William Shakespear’s Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies. . . . The third Impression. 1663–4 F4 Mr. William Shakespear’s Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies. . . . The Fourth Edition. 1685 rowe1 Nicholas Rowe. Works. 6 vols. 1709. Vol. 2. 1709 rowe2 Nicholas Rowe. Works. 6 vols. 1709. Vol. 2. 1709 rowe3 Nicholas Rowe. Works. 8 vols. 1714. Vol. 3. 1714 pope1 Alexander Pope. Works. 6 vols. 1725. Vol. 2. 1725 pope2 Alexander Pope. Works. 8 vols. 1728. Vol. 3. 1728 theo1 Lewis Theobald. Works. 7 vols. 1733. Vol. 3. 1733 theo2 Lewis Theobald. Works. 8 vols. 1740. Vol. 3. 1740 han1 Thomas Hanmer. Works. 6 vols. Oxford, 1743–4. Vol. 2. 1743 han2 Thomas Hanmer. Works. 6 vols. 1745. Vol. 2. 1745 warb William Warburton. Works. 8 vols. 1747. Vol. 3. 1747 theo4 Lewis Theobald. Works. 8 vols. 1757. Vol. 3. 1757 john1 Samuel Johnson. Plays. 8 vols. Printed for J. and R. Tonson, C. Corbet . . . , 1765. Vol. 2. 1765 john2 Samuel Johnson. Plays. 8 vols. Printed for J. and R. Tonson, H. Woodfall . . . , 1765. Vol. 2. 1765 cap Edward Capell. Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies. 10 vols. [1768.] Vol. 4. 1768 v1773 Samuel Johnson & George Steevens. Plays. 10 vols. 1773. Vol. 4. 1773 v1778 Samuel Johnson & George Steevens. Plays. 10 vols. 1778. Vol. 4. 1778 v1785 Samuel Johnson, George Steevens, & Isaac Reed. Plays. 10 vols. 1785. Vol. 4. 1785 rann Joseph Rann. Dramatic Works. 6 vols. Oxford, 1786–[94]. Vol. 2. 1787 mal Edmond Malone. Plays & Poems. 10 vols. 1790. Vol. 4. 1790 v1793 George Steevens & Isaac Reed. Plays. 15 vols. 1793. Vol. 7. 1793 v1803 Isaac Reed. Plays. 21 vols. 1803. Vol. 9. 1803 v1813 Isaac Reed. Plays. 21 vols. 1813. Vol. 9. 1813 v1821 James Boswell. Plays & Poems. 21 vols. 1821. Vol. 14. 1821 sing1 Samuel W. Singer. Dramatic Works. 10 vols. Chiswick, 1826. Vol. 4. 1826 knt1 Charles Knight. Comedies, Histories, Tragedies, & Poems. Pictorial Ed. 55 pts. [1838–43.] Reissued in 8 vols. Pt. 30 (Comedies, vol. 2). 1841 knt2 Charles Knight. Comedies, Histories, Tragedies, & Poems. 2nd ed. 12 vols. 1842–4. Vol. 4. 1842 col1 John Payne Collier. Works. 8 vols. 1842–4. Vol. 3. 1842 hud1 Henry N. Hudson. Works. 11 vols. Boston & Cambridge, Mass., 1851–6. Vol. 4. 1852 col2 John Payne Collier. Plays. 1853 sing2 Samuel W. Singer. Dramatic Works. 10 vols. Vol. 4. 1856 dyce1 Alexander Dyce. Works. 6 vols. 1857. Vol. 3. 1857 wh1 Richard Grant White. Works. 12 vols. Boston, 1857–66. Vol. 5. 1857 col3 John Payne Collier. Comedies, Histories, Tragedies, & Poems. The Second Edition. 6 vols. 1858. Vol. 3. 1858 hal James O. Halliwell. Works. 16 vols. 1853–65. Vol. 8. 1859 stau Howard Staunton. Plays. 50 pts. 1856–60. Reissued in 3 vols. 1858–60. Pts. 37–8 (Vol. 3). 1859 del2 Nicolaus Delius. Werke. 7 vols. Elberfeld, 1854–[61]. Vol. 6. 1860 cam1 William George Clark, John Glover, & William Aldis Wright. Works. Cambridge Sh. 9 vols. Cambridge & London, 1863–6. Vol. 3. 1863 glo William George Clark & William Aldis Wright. Works. Globe Ed. Cambridge & London. 1864 ktly Thomas Keightley. Plays. 6 vols. 1864. Vol. 2. 1864 dyce2 Alexander Dyce. Works. 2nd ed. 9 vols. 1864–7. Vol. 3. 1864 knt3 Charles Knight. Works. Pictorial Ed. The Second Edition, Revised. 8 vols. 1867. Comedies, vol. 2. 1867 del4 Nicolaus Delius. Werke. Dritte, Revidirte Auflage. 2 vols. Elberfeld, 1872. Vol. 1. 1872 col4 John Payne Collier. Plays & Poems. 43 pts. in 8 vols. 1875–8. Vol. 3. 1875 hud2 Henry N. Hudson. Works. Harvard Ed. 20 vols. Boston, 1880–1. Vol. 7. 1880 wh2 Richard Grant White. Comedies, Histories, Tragedies, & Poems. Riverside Sh. 6 vols. Boston, 1883. Vol. 2. 1883 irv Henry Irving & Frank Marshall. Works. Henry Irving Sh. 8 vols. N.Y., 1888–90. Vol. 7. Notes and Introd. by Arthur Symons. 1890 oxf1 W. J. Craig. Works. Oxford Sh. [1891] bul A. H. Bullen. Works. Stratford Town Ed. 10 vols. Stratford-on-Avon, 1904–7. Vol. 4. 1905 nlsn William Allan Neilson. Works. Cambridge Ed. Boston & N.Y. 1906 ard1 F. W. Moorman. WT. Arden Sh. 1912 cam3 Arthur Quiller-Couch & John Dover Wilson. WT. New [Cambridge] Sh. 1931; rev. 1950. 1931 kit1 George Lyman Kittredge. Works. Boston. 1936 alex Peter Alexander. Works. 1951 sis Charles Jasper Sisson. Works. 1954 pel1 Baldwin Maxwell. WT. Pelican Sh. Baltimore. 1956 cln2 S. L. Bethell. WT. New Clarendon Sh. 1956 ard2 J. H. P. Pafford. WT. New Arden Sh. 1963 sig Frank Kermode. WT. Signet Classic Sh. 1963 pen2 Ernest Schanzer. WT. New Penguin Sh. 1969 evns G. Blakemore Evans et al. Works. Riverside Sh. Boston. 1974 bev3 David Bevington. Works. 3rd ed. Glenville, Ill. 1980 oxf2 Stanley Wells & Gary Taylor. Works. Oxford Sh. (Modern Sp.) Oxford. 1986 bev4 David Bevington. The Late Romances. Bantam Books. Toronto. 1988

The editions, books, and manuscripts listed below are also referred to. Although all editions mentioned in the textual notes have been fully collated, only readings that they first print or, in a few instances, revive after long disuse are reported. Readings from revised editions (n&h, k&r, and pel2) appear only when those editions differ from their predecessors.

msing MS notes in F2, S. W. Singer copy, quoted in sing2. 1632–1856 mF1h MS notes in F1, Honeyman copy. See Hook (1959). –1650? mflV.a.80 [Evans, John. Hesperides, or The Muses Garden.] Commonplace book. Folger Library. See Sorelius (1973). 1655–9 mF1fl10 MS notes in F1. Folger Library, Copy 10. 1700– mpope Alexander Pope. MS notes in F3. Folger Library, Copy 20. –1723 mtby1 Styan Thirlby. MS notes in one of Rowe’s 1709 eds., now lost but quoted in mtby2. 1709–25 mtby2 Styan Thirlby. MS notes in Pope’s 1725 ed. Beinecke Library, Yale. Vol. 5. 1725–33? mtheo1 Lewis Theobald. MS notes in F2. Folger Library, Copy 20. –1729? mlong Roger Long. MS notes in F2. Pembroke College Library, Cambridge. –1733? mtby3 Styan Thirlby. MS notes in Theobald’s 1733 ed. Folger Library, Copy 2. 1733–47? mF4tcc MS notes in F4. Trinity College Library, Cambridge, H.18.12. 1733?– m1733fl4 MS notes in Theobald’s 1733 ed. Folger Library, Copy 4. 1733?– mhan Thomas Hanmer. Letters to William Warburton. British Library. 1735–9 mtol George Tollet. MS notes in Theobald’s 1740 ed. Folger Library, Copy 4. 1740–79 mF2fl48 MS notes in F2. Folger Library, Copy 48. –1747 mtby4 Styan Thirlby. MS notes in Warburton’s 1747 ed. Folger Library, Copy 2. 1747–53 mgrey Zachary Grey. Notes and Extracts from Mr. Warburton’s Shakespear. Cambridge University Library. 1747–66 mwarb William Warburton. MS notes in his 1747 ed. Folger Library, Copy 5. 1747–79 mF2fl27 MS notes in F2. Folger Library, Copy 27. c. 1750 theo3 Lewis Theobald. Works. 8 vols. 1752. Vol. 3. 1752 blair [Hugh Blair.] Works. 8 vols. Edinburgh, 1753. Vol. 3. 1753 mlush Henry Lushington. MS notes in Theobald’s 1733 ed. Folger Library, Copy 5. c. 1754 mcap2 Edward Capell. MS text of WT. Trinity College Library, Cambridge. 1754 mF2fl21 MS notes in F2. Folger Library, Copy 21. 1754–65 mtyr Thomas Tyrwhitt. MS notes in F2. (c.39.i.13) British Library. –1767 han3 Thomas Hanmer. Works. 6 vols. Oxford, 1770–1. Vol. 2. 1770 mmal1 Edmond Malone. Notebook. British Library. 1773–90 gent Francis Gentleman & Samuel Derrick. WT: A Tragedy, . . . As Performed at the Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden. Bell’s Sh. 1773. Issued in 9 vols. [1773–4.] Vol. 5. 2nd ed. 1775. 1774 mmal2 Edmond Malone. Notebook. Furness Collection, Univ. of Pennsylvania Library. 1777–80 m1773fl3 MS notes in Johnson & Steevens’s 1773 ed. Folger Library, Copy 3. 1778?– dodd William Dodd. The Beauties of Shakespear. 3rd ed. 2 vols. (1st ed. 1752.) 1780 capn Edward Capell. Notes and Various Readings to Shakespeare. 3 vols. 1783 m1778bl Isaac Reed and others (Edmond Malone? Samuel Henley? John? Henderson?). MS notes in Johnson & Steevens’s 1778 ed. British Library. –1785 ays1 [Samuel Ayscough.] Works. John Stockdale, [etc.]. 1784 ays2 Samuel Ayscough. Dramatic Works. 3 vols. 1790. Vol. 1. 1790 m1768fl MS notes in Capell’s 1768 ed. Folger Library, Copy 6. c. 1790 mtook John Horne Tooke. MS notes in Malone’s 1790 ed. Folger Library. 1790–1812 m1790afl Anon. MS notes in Ayscough’s 1790 ed. Folger Library, Copy 8. 1790– m1790bfl Anon. MS notes in Malone’s 1790 ed. Folger Library, Copy 4. 1790– m1793bod George Steevens, Isaac Reed, et al. MS notes in Johnson & Steevens’s 1793 ed. Bodleian Library. 1793–1803? m1793fl Anon. MS notes. Folger Library S.a.113 1793– kem1 John Philip Kemble. WT. As acted at the Theatre Royal. 1802 kem2 John Philip Kemble. WT. As acted at the Theatre Royal. 1811 mcal Thomas Caldecott (d. 1833). MS notes in v1813. British Library. 1813–33 harn William Harness. Dramatic Works. 8 vols. Vol. 3. 1825 valpy A. J. Valpy. Plays and Poems. 15 vols. 1832–4. Vol. 5. 1833 mcole Samuel Taylor Coleridge. MS notes in Theobald’s 1733 ed. British Library. c. 1834 mlet W. Nanson Lettsom. MS notes in a facsimile F1, 1807? Dyce Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum. 1840–65 mcol1 John Payne Collier. MS notes in F1, Bridgewater Copy. Huntington Library. c. 1840 mcol2 John Payne Collier. MS notes in F2, Perkins Copy. Huntington Library. c. 1850 mtay John Taylor. MS notes in Reed’s 1813 ed. Trinity College Library, Cambridge. c. 1850 colne John Payne Collier. Notes and Emendations. 2nd ed., rev. & enl. 1853. (1st ed. 1852.) 1853 mcol3 John Payne Collier. MS notes in his 1853 ed., vol. 3. Bodleian Library. 1858–78? mstau Howard Staunton. MS notes, copied by P. A. Daniel, in Staunton’s 1864 ed., vol. 3. Folger Library. 1864–74 dyce3 Alexander Dyce. Works. 3rd ed. 9 vols. 1875–6. Vol. 3. 1875 mbrae Andrew E. Brae. Letter to Joseph Parker Norris, 24 Dec. 1877. Folger Library. 1877 mper Philip Perring. MS notes on WT. Trinity College Library, Cambridge. 1885–1920? cam2 William Aldis Wright. Works. Cambridge Sh. 2nd ed. 9 vols. 1891–3. Vol. 3. 1891 mwray G. O. Wray. Corrections and suggestions from the revd. Dr. Wray. Trinity College Library, Cambridge. 1891–3? v1898 Horace Howard Furness. WT. New Variorum Sh. Philadelphia. 1898 rltr E. K. Chambers. WT. Red Letter Sh. [1907] rid Maurice R. Ridley. WT. New Temple Sh. 1935 n&h William A. Neilson & Charles J. Hill. Plays and Poems. Cambridge, Mass. 1942 pen1 G. B. Harrison. WT. Penguin Sh. 1947 mun John Munro. Works. London Sh. 6 vols. 1957. Vol. 2. 1957 k&r George Lyman Kittredge & Irving Ribner. WT. Waltham, Mass. 1967 pel2 Baldwin Maxwell. WT. In Works. Pelican Sh., rev. Baltimore. 1969

The following sources are occasionally quoted in the commentary or critical discussion:

David Garrick. Florizel and Perdita. . . . As it is performed at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. 1758 David Garrick. The Winter’s Tale, or Florizel and Perdita. A dramatic pastoral altered from Shakspeare. 1785 Johann Joachim Eschenburg. Schauspiele. 12 vols. Zürich, 1798–1806. Vol. 5. (1st ed. 1775–6.) 1801 [Elizabeth] Inchbald. WT. British Theatre. 25 vols. Vol. 3. 1808 Alexander Chalmers. Plays. 8 vols. Vol. 3. 1823 Johann Wilhelm Otto Benda. Werke. 19 vols. Leipzig, 1825–6. Vol. 8. 1825 Johann Heinrich & Abraham Voss. Schauspiele. 9 vols. Leipzig & Stuttgart, 1818–29. Vol. 9. 1829 D[aniel], G[eorge]. WT. Cumberland’s Sh. 5. [1830?] Ludwig Tieck. Dramatische Werke. Tr. A. W. von Schlegel. 9 vols. Berlin, 1825–33. Vol. 8. 1832 J. R. Pitman. The School-Shakspeare. 2nd ed. 1834 William Charles Macready. WT. Ed. Elizabeth Inchbald. Annotated by J. R. Anderson. 1837 Barry Cornwall (i.e., Bryan Waller Procter). Works. 3 vols. Vol. 1. 1844 Samuel Phelps. WT. Cumberland’s British Theatre 6. Annotated by Phelps and William C. Williams. 1845– Gulian Verplanck. Plays. 138 pts. [N.Y., 1844–7.] Reissued in 3 vols. Vol. 2. 1845 Charles Knight. WT. The Stratford Shakespeare. 4 vols. Vol. 4. 1854 William Burton. WT. Ed. Elizabeth Inchbald. Annotated by John Moore. 1856 Charles Kean. WT. Extracted from Works. Ed. Charles Knight. [1841]. MS alterations. 1856 Charles Kean. WT. As performed 28 Apr. 1856. 1856 J. B. Wright. WT. French’s Standard Drama, no. 317. [1860?] R. Carruthers & W. Chambers. Dramatic Works. Chambers’s Household Ed. 10 vols. in 5. 1861–3. Vol. 4. 1862 Charles & Mary Cowden Clarke. Plays. Cassell’s Illustrated Sh. 270 pts., 1864–9. Reissued in 3 vols. Vol. 1. 1865 Charles Calvert. WT. Manchester. [1869] Otto Gildemeister (tr.). Das Wintermärchen. Leipzig. 1870 Alexander Schmidt. Das Wintermärchen. In Dramatische Werke. Tr. August Wilhelm von Schlegel & Ludwig Tieck. Ed. H. Ulrici. 12 vols. Berlin, 1867–71. Vol. 9. 1870 John Hunter. Shakspeare’s Comedy of A Winter’s Tale. 1872 Edward Saker. WT. Liverpool, 1876. F. J. Furnivall. WT. The Leopold Sh. Furnivall introd. Delius text. [1877?] William J. Rolfe. WT. English Classics. 1879 Joseph Crosby. Letter to C. M. Ingleby, 30 Aug. 1881. Folger Library C.a.9. 1881 Henry Morley. WT. Cassell’s Natl. Lib. 1887 Mary Anderson. WT. N.Y. 1888 Kenneth Deighton. WT. Deighton’s Grey Cover Sh. 1889 Israel Gollancz. WT. Temple Sh. 41 vols. Vol. 41. 1894 W. E. Henley. Works. 10 vols. 1901–4. Vol. 3. 1902 Charlotte Porter & Helen A. Clarke. Works. Croxley Ed. 12 vols. Vol. 4. [c. 1903] C. H. Herford. Works. Eversley Ed. 10 vols. Vol. 4. (WT first pub. as 1 of 39 vols., 1899.) 1904 A. J. F. Collins. WT. The Tutorial Sh. [1904–24?] Viola Allen. WT. As performed 26 Dec. 1904. N.Y. 1905a Viola Allen. WT. Promptbook created by annotating the performance ed. 1905b George Brandes. Works. Garrick Sh. 12 vols. Vols. 4 & 12. 1905 Sidney Lee. Works. Univ. Press Ed. 40 vols. N.Y., 1906–9. Vol. 15. WT introd. by J. J. Jusserand. 1907 Charlotte Porter & Helen A. Clarke. Works. First Folio Ed. 40 vols. N.Y., c. 1903–12. Vol. 34. [1908] K[enneth] Deighton. WT. 2nd ed. Deighton’s Red Cover Sh. 1908 F. J. Furnivall & F. W. Clarke. WT. Old-Spelling Sh. N.Y. 1908 J. H. Lobban. WT. Granta Sh. Cambridge. 1910 Winthrop Ames & John Corbin. WT. Promptbook based on a 1902 ed. 1910 Harley Granville-Barker. WT. Preface by Granville-Barker. [1912] H. B. Charlton. WT. Arden Sh. 1916 C. H. Herford. WT. Warwick Sh. [1916–] Frederick E. Pierce. WT. Yale Sh. 1918 Hardin Craig. Shakespeare: A Historical and Critical Study of Twenty-One Plays. 1931 Frank Woolfe. Promptbook based on Gollancz, ed. 1894. 1932 Tucker Brooke, J. W. Cunliffe, & H. N. MacCracken. Principal Plays. 3rd. ed. 1935 Emile Legouis. Le Conte d’hiver. Collection Sh. 1936 B. Iden Payne. WT. Promptbook based on Herford, ed. 1904. 1937 B. Iden Payne. WT. Typescript promptbook with MS notes. 1946 Anthony Quayle. WT. Promptbook with MS notes. 1948 Peter Wood. WT. Promptbook based on Cambridge Pocket Sh. 1959. 1960 S. C. Boorman. WT. London English Literature Ser. 1964 R. R. Young & C. W. R. D. Moseley. WT. South Bank Sh. 1965 Louis B. Wright & Virginia A. LaMar. WT. Folger Library General Reader’s Sh. 1966 Trevor Nunn. WT. Promptbook based on Kermode, ed. 1963. 1969 John Barton. WT. Promptbook based on Wilson, ed. 1931 (rpt. 1959). 1976 Ronald Eyre. WT. Promptbook based on Schanzer, ed. 1969. 1981 Christopher Parry. WT. Macmillan Sh. 1982 Ingeborg Boltz. WT. Das Wintermärchen. Englisch-deutsche Studienausgabe. 1986 Terry Hands. WT. Promptbook based on Schanzer, ed. 1969. 1987 David Bevington. Works. 4th ed. N.Y. 1992 Stephen Orgel. WT. Oxford Sh. 1996 Richard Knowles. Lr. New Variorum Sh. forthcoming

Unless otherwise specified, quotations of authors other than Shakespeare are drawn from these editions:

The Dramatic Works in the Beaumont & Fletcher Canon. Gen. ed. Fredson Bowers. 10 vols. Cambridge, 1966–96. The Life & Complete Works in Verse & Prose of Robert Greene, M.A. Ed. Alexander B. Grosart. 15 vols. 1881–6. (Rpt. N.Y.: Russell & Russell, 1964.) Ben Jonson. Ed. C. H. Herford & Percy & Evelyn Simpson. 11 vols. 1925–52. The Works of Thomas Kyd. Ed. Frederick S. Boas. Oxford, 1901. The Complete Works of John Lyly. Ed. R. Warwick Bond. 3 vols. Oxford, 1902. The Complete Works of Christopher Marlowe. Ed. Fredson Bowers. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1979. The Life & Works of George Peele. Gen. ed. Charles Tyler Prouty. 3 vols. New Haven, 1952–70. The Dramatic Works and Poems of James Shirley. Ed. William Gifford; rev. Alexander Dyce. 6 vols. 1833.

In addition to others commonly employed, the following abbreviations occur:

  • a
    in a signature, left-hand column
  • a.
    adjective
  • ad.
    added, additionally
  • Ado
    Much Ado about Nothing
  • AEB
    Analytical and Enumerative Bibliography
  • AI
    American Imago
  • ALitASH
    Acta Litteraria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
  • Anon.
    Anonymous
  • Ant.
    Antony and Cleopatra
  • app.
    appendix
  • Archiv
    Archiv für das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen
  • Assn.
    Association
  • attrib.
    attributed to
  • aug.
    augmented
  • AWW
    All’s Well That Ends Well
  • AYL
    As You Like It
  • b
    in a signature, right-hand column
  • BJRL
    Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester
  • BL
    British Library
  • BLC
    British Library General Catalogue of Printed Books
  • BSUF
    Ball State University Forum
  • Bull.
    Bulletin
  • BuR
    Bucknell Review
  • c.
    circa, century
  • CahiersE
    Cahiers Elisabéthains
  • C&L
    Christianity and Literature
  • CE
    College English
  • CentR
    Centennial Review
  • cf.
    compare
  • ch.
    chapter
  • CLAJ
    College Language Association Journal
  • CLS
    Comparative Literature Studies
  • CML
    Classical and Modern Literature: A Quarterly
  • CompD
    Comparative Drama
  • Comp. Lit.
    Comparative Literature
  • comp(s).
    compiler(s)
  • conj.
    conjecture, conjectural
  • ConR
    Contemporary Review
  • Cor.
    Coriolanus
  • CritQ
    Critical Quarterly
  • Cym.
    Cymbeline
  • degr.
    degraded (usually to a note)
  • diff.
    different
  • diss.
    dissertation
  • DNB
    Dictionary of National Biography
  • DR
    Dalhousie Review
  • DUJ
    Durham University Journal
  • EA
    Etudes Anglaises
  • EAA
    Estudos Anglo-Americanos (São Paulo)
  • E&S
    Essays and Studies (London)
  • Eccles.
    Ecclesiastes
  • ed(s).
    edited by, editor(s), edition(s)
  • EDD
    The English Dialect Dictionary, ed. Joseph Wright, 6 vols. 1898–1905
  • EIC
    Essays in Criticism
  • EIE
    English Institute Essays
  • EigoS
    Eigo Seinen
  • EIRC
    Explorations in Renaissance Culture
  • EiT
    Essays in Theatre
  • ELH
    the title per se; formerly Journal of English Literary History
  • ELN
    English Language Notes
  • ELR
    English Literary Renaissance
  • EM
    English Miscellany
  • Eng.
    English
  • enl.
    enlarged
  • Err.
    The Comedy of Errors
  • ES
    English Studies (Netherlands)
  • ESC
    English Studies in Canada
  • ESn
    Englische Studien
  • et al.
    and others
  • etc.
    (in a textual note) and all other collated editions
  • Exod.
    Exodus
  • Expl
    Explicator
  • Ezek.
    Ezekiel
  • f.
    folio (leaf or page number)
  • F, F1
    First Folio (1623)
  • F2, F3, F4
    Second (1632), Third (1663–4), Fourth (1685) Folios
  • Ff.
    Folios
  • FQ
    Faerie Queene
  • Fr.
    French
  • Gen.
    Genesis
  • Gent.
    Gentleman
  • Gent. Mag.
    Gentleman’s Magazine
  • Ger.
    German
  • 1H4
    The First Part of Henry the Fourth
  • 2H4
    The Second Part of Henry the Fourth
  • H5
    Henry the Fifth
  • 1H6
    The First Part of Henry the Sixth
  • 2H6
    The Second Part of Henry the Sixth
  • 3H6
    The Third Part of Henry the Sixth
  • H8
    King Henry the Eighth
  • Hab.
    Habakkuk
  • HAB
    Humanities Association Bulletin (Canada)
  • Ham.
    Hamlet
  • HLB
    Harvard Library Bulletin
  • HLQ
    Huntington Library Quarterly
  • Idem
    the same commentator
  • IJPP
    Interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy
  • Isa.
    Isaiah
  • ISJR
    Iowa State Journal of Research
  • JAMS
    Journal of the American Musicological Society
  • Jas.
    James
  • JC
    Julius Caesar
  • JEGP
    Journal of English and Germanic Philology
  • Jer.
    Jeremiah
  • JHI
    Journal of the History of Ideas
  • Jn.
    King John
  • Jour.
    Journal
  • Jth.
    Judith
  • l(l).
    line(s)
  • L&P
    Literature and Psychology
  • LanM
    Les Langues Modernes
  • LC
    A Lover’s Complaint
  • Lev.
    Leviticus
  • Libr.
    Library
  • LLL
    Love’s Labour’s Lost
  • Lr.
    King Lear
  • Luc.
    The Rape of Lucrece
  • m
    with a siglum, a manuscript source
  • Mac.
    Macbeth
  • Mag.
    Magazine
  • M&L
    Music and Letters
  • Matt.
    Matthew
  • MdF
    Mercure de France
  • MED
    Middle English Dictionary
  • Met.
    Metamorphoses
  • MLN
    the title per se; formerly Modern Language Notes
  • MLQ
    Modern Language Quarterly
  • MLR
    Modern Language Review
  • MLS
    Modern Language Studies
  • MM
    Measure for Measure
  • MND
    A Midsummer Night’s Dream
  • MP
    Modern Philology
  • MQ
    Midwest Quarterly
  • MS(S)
    manuscript(s)
  • MSE
    Massachusetts Studies in English
  • MSpr
    Moderna Språk
  • MSR
    Malone Society Reprint
  • MV
    The Merchant of Venice
  • n(n).
    note(s)
  • N&Q
    Notes and Queries
  • NCCH
    New Century Classical Handbook
  • n.d.
    not dated
  • n.p.
    place of publication unspecified
  • NS
    new series
  • NUC
    National Union Catalogue
  • OCD
    Oxford Classical Dictionary
  • Od.
    Odyssey
  • OED
    Oxford English Dictionary
  • om.
    omitted by
  • Oth.
    Othello
  • OUP
    Oxford University Press
  • p(p).
    page(s)
  • PBA
    Proceedings of the British Academy
  • PBSA
    Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America
  • PCLS
    Proceedings of the Comparative Literature Symposium (Lubbock, Texas)
  • PCP
    Pacific Coast Philology
  • Per.
    Pericles
  • 1 Pet.
    1 Peter
  • PhT
    The Phoenix and Turtle
  • pl.
    plural
  • PMLA
    Publications of the Modern Language Association of America
  • PQ
    Philological Quarterly
  • prep.
    preposition
  • Preuss.
    Preussische (Prussian)
  • Ps.
    Psalms
  • pseud.
    pseudonym
  • PsyR
    Psychoanalytic Review
  • pt(s).
    part(s)
  • pub., publ.
    published, publication
  • Q
    quarto
  • QQ
    Queen’s Quarterly
  • R2
    King Richard the Second
  • R3
    King Richard the Third
  • RAA
    Revue Anglo-Américaine
  • REL
    Review of English Literature
  • RenD
    Renaissance Drama
  • RenQ
    Renaissance Quarterly
  • RES
    Review of English Studies
  • Rev.
    Revelations
  • Rev.
    Review
  • rev.
    revised
  • RMR
    Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature
  • Rom.
    Romeo and Juliet
  • rpt.
    reprint, reprinted
  • RSC
    Royal Shakespeare Company
  • RSTC
    Revised ed. (1986–91) of STC
  • SAB
    South Atlantic Bulletin
  • 1 Sam.
    1 Samuel
  • sb.
    substantive (noun)
  • SB
    Studies in Bibliography
  • SCL
    Shakespeare Centre Library, Stratford-upon-Avon
  • SD(s)
    stage direction(s)
  • SEL
    Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900
  • ser.
    series
  • ShAB
    Shakespeare Association Bulletin
  • ShakB
    Shakespeare Bulletin (New York Sh. Soc.)
  • ShakS
    Shakespeare Studies
  • Sh(n).
    Shakespeare(an) (any spelling)
  • ShN
    Shakespeare Newsletter
  • Shr.
    The Taming of the Shrew
  • ShS
    Shakespeare Survey
  • sig(s).
    signature(s)
  • SJ
    Shakespeare-Jahrbuch
  • SJH
    Shakespeare-Jahrbuch (Heidelberg)
  • SJW
    Shakespeare-Jahrbuch (Weimar)
  • SN
    Studia Neophilologica
  • SoAR
    South Atlantic Review
  • Soc.
    Society
  • Son.
    Shakespeare’s Sonnets
  • SoRA
    Southern Review (Adelaide)
  • SP
    Studies in Philology
  • SP(s)
    speech prefix(es)
  • SPWVSRA
    Selected Papers from the West Virginia Shakespeare and Renaissance Association
  • SQ
    Shakespeare Quarterly
  • SR
    Sewanee Review
  • Sr.
    Sister
  • SSEng
    Sydney Studies in English
  • STC
    A Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, and Ireland . . . 1475–1640. (by A. W. Pollard and G. R. Redgrave; 2nd ed., rev. and enl. Ed. W. A. Jackson, F. S. Ferguson, & Katherine F. Pantzer. 3 vols. 1986–91)
  • Stud.
    Studies
  • subst.
    substantially
  • supp.
    supplement
  • s_v.
    sub verba
  • TGV
    Two Gentlemen of Verona
  • Th.
    Theater, Theatre
  • ThS
    Theatre Survey
  • THSt
    Theatre History Studies
  • Tim.
    Timon of Athens
  • Tit.
    Titus Andronicus
  • TLN
    Through Line Number(s)
  • TLS
    [London] Times Literary Supplement
  • TM
    Theatre Museum, London
  • Tmp.
    The Tempest
  • TN
    Twelfth Night or Theatre Notebook
  • TNK
    The Two Noble Kinsmen
  • TPB
    Tennessee Philological Bulletin
  • tr.
    translation, translated by
  • Tro.
    Troilus and Cressida
  • TSLL
    Texas Studies in Literature and Language
  • UCrow
    The Upstart Crow
  • UES
    Unisa English Studies
  • UMSE
    University of Mississippi Studies in English
  • Univ.
    University
  • UTQ
    University of Toronto Quarterly
  • v
    (in a signature, superscript) verso; (with a siglum) variorum edition
  • v.
    verb
  • Var.
    variorum edition
  • Ven.
    Venus and Adonis
  • vol(s).
    volume(s)
  • Wiv.
    Merry Wives of Windsor
  • WS
    Women’s Studies
  • WT
    The Winter’s Tale
  • WVUPP
    West Virginia University Philological Papers
  • YES
    Yearbook of English Studies

Symbols used in the textual apparatus include

  • punctuation absent
  •  ~ 
    corresponding word of the lemma is repeated
  • -
    all collated editions between the two specified
  • +
    all succeeding collated editions
  • (− )
    except the editions specified, which read with the lemma (i.e., with F1)